Guadalcanal (indigenous name: Isatabu) is the principal island in Guadalcanal Province of the nation of Solomon Islands in the South-Western Pacific. It was discovered by the Spanish expedition of Álvaro de Mendaña in 1568. The name comes from Guadalcanal, a village in the province of Seville, in Andalusia, Spain, birthplace of Pedro de Ortega Valencia, a member of Mendaña's expedition.
During 1942–43 it was the scene of the Guadalcanal Campaign, and saw bitter fighting between Japanese and US troops; the Americans were ultimately victorious.
At the end of the war, Honiara, on the north coast of Guadalcanal, became the new capital of the British Solomon Islands Protectorate. Guadalcanal is mainly covered in dense tropical rainforest and it has a mountainous interior.