Kiel, the «City of fresh air», has numerous faces. The time when it was a member in the Hanseatic League have shaped it as much as the Christian-Albrechts-Universität, the shipyards, the Kieler Woche festival, and the construction of the Kiel Canal. The location of the war harbour here also left its mark, as 80% of Kiel lay in ruins when World War II was over in 1945. The Nikolai Church, dating from 1242, in front of which Ernst Barlachs sculpture of the «Mind Warrior» keeps guard, is located at the Old Market. Only the grave of Kiels founder, Duke Adolf IV of Schauenburg, is preserved in the vault of the former Franciscan Monastery. Meanwhile, theres a colourful assembly of offices, boutiques and shops around the former market place. A few streets down, Kiels little red-light district with its clubs, fast food stalls, and «hotels» is starting up. Like most of these areas, the «Wall» is located right near the harbour, right across the street from the Maritime Museum, which has been set up in the old fish market hall. Past the radio and TV-station NDR, you arrive at the Castle which was unfortunately completely destroyed during the war. It has since been rebuilt with a modern concert hall in a sixties style. The City Hall, the Opera, and the Ministry of Justice rise up majestically alongside the two lakes referred to as Kleinen Kiel. Offering all kinds of shopping facilities, the Holstenstraße was Germanys first pedestrian precinct and was opened in 1951. It runs from the old Market, past the Asmus-Bremer Square, up to the train station and ends at the shopping centre Sophienhof. On the way, you will pass the Ostseehalle, Kiels largest hall for concerts, events and trade fairs, located on the Europaplatz (Europe Square) which has an interesting architecture. One month before Christmas the whole shopping area turns into a giant Christmas Market. Wooden huts, decorated with strings of candle like lights, offer a various selection of arts and crafts as well as culinary delights. The Bergstraße (English: Hill Street) offers a number of discos, pubs and clubs. Here you can party every night until 3 or 4am and afterwards enjoy Kiels best French Fries at the Aurette, an oily little food stall. The Bergstraße will lead you from the downtown area to the Dreiecksplatz (Triangle Square) where another popular shopping street, the Holtenauer Street, starts.